Below is a list of publications written from our research findings. Please click the links (when available) to review the articles.


Conway, A., & Stifter, C. A. (2012). Longitudinal antecedents of executive function in preschoolers. Child Development, 83, 1022-1036.

Stifter, C., Dollar, J. M., Cipriano, E. A., & (2011). Temperament and emotion regulation: The role of autonomic nervous system reactivity. Developmental Psychobiology, 52, 266-279.

Voegtline, K. M., Stifter, C. A., & The Family Life Project Investigators (2010). Late-preterm birth, maternal symptomatology, and infant negativity. Infant Behavior and Development, 33, 545-554.

Cipriano, E. A., & Stifter, C. A. (2010). Predicting preschool effortful control from toddler temperament and parenting behavior. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31, 221-230.

Stifter, C. A., Cipriano, E., Conway, A., & Kelleher, R. (2009). Temperament and the development of conscience: The moderating role of effortful control. Social Development, 18, 353-374.

Jahromi, L. B., & Stifter, C.A. (2008). Individual differences in preschoolers’ self-regulation and theory of mind. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 54, 125-150.

Stifter, C. A., Putnam, S., & Jahromi, L. (2008). Exuberant and inhibited toddlers: Stability of temperament and prediction to behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 401-421.

Stifter, C. A., Willoughby, M., & Towe-Goodman, N. (2008). Agree or agree to disagree: Assessing the convergence between parents and observers of infant temperament. Infant and Child Development, 17, 407-426.

Warren, H. K., & Stifter, C. A. (2008). Maternal emotion-related socialization and preschoolers’ developing emotion self-awareness. Social Development, 17, 239-258.

Jahromi, L. B., & Stifter, C.A. (2007). Individual differences in the effectiveness of maternal soothing on reducing infant distress response. Infancy, 11, 255-269.

Spinrad, T. L., & Stifter, C. A. 2006). Toddlers’ empathy-related responding to distress: Predictions from negative emotionality and maternal behaviors in infancy. Infancy, 10, 97-121.

Quigley, K. S., & Stifter, C. A. (2006). A comparative validation of sympathetic reactivity in children and adults. Psychophysiology, 43, 357-365.

Ahn, H. J., & Stifter, C.A. (2006). Child care teachers’ responses to children’s emotional expressions. Early Education and Development, 17, 253-270.

Stifter, C. A. (2005). Crying behaviour and its impact on psychosocial child development. In Encyclopedia on Early Development. Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development

Putnam, S., & Stifter, C. (2005). Behavioral approach-inhibition in toddlers: Prediction from infancy, positive and negative affective components, and relations with behavior problems. Child Development, 76, 212-226.

Jahromi, L., Stifter, C. (2004). Individual differences in maternal soothing effects.

Jahromi, L., Putnam, S., & Stifter, C. (2004). Maternal regulation of infant reactivity from 2 to 6 months. Developmental Psychology, 40, 477-487.

Stifter, C. & Wiggins, C. (2004). Assessment of disturbances in emotion regulation and temperament. In R. DelCarmen-Wiggins & A. Carter, (eds.). Handbook of Infant, Toddler, and Preschool Mental Health Assessment (pp. 79-103). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Spinrad, T., Stifter, C., Donelan-McCall, N., & Turner, L. (2004). Mothers regulation strategies in response to toddlers affect: Links to later emotion self-regulation. Social Development, 13, 40-55.

Stifter, C., Bono, M., & Spinrad, T. (2003). Parent characteristics and conceptualizations associated with the emergence of infant colic. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 21,309-322.

Bono, M. & Stifter, C. (2003). Maternal attention-directing strategies and infant focused attention during problem solving. Infancy, 4, 235-250.

Spinrad, T., Stifter, C. (2002). Maternal sensitivity and infant emotional reactivity: Concurrent and longitudinal relations. Marriage and Family Review, 34, 243-263.

Putnam, S. & Stifter, C. (2002). Development of approach and inhibition in the first year: Parallel findings from motor behavior, temperament ratings, and directional cardiac response. Developmental Science, 5, 441-451.

Stifter, C. & Spinrad, T. (2002). The effect of excessive crying on the development of emotion regulation. Infancy, 3, 133-152.

Stifter, C. (2002). Individual differences in emotion regulation in infancy: A thematic collection. Infancy, 3, 129-132.

Putnam, S., Spritz, B., & Stifter, C. (2002). Mother-child co-regulation during delay of gratification at 30 months. Infancy, 3, 209-225.

Stifter, C. & Corey, J. (2001). Vagal regulation and observed social behavior in infancy. Social Development, 10, 189-201.

Stifter, C.A. (2001). “Life” after unexplained crying: Child and parent outcomes. In R. Barr, I. St. James Roberts, & M. Keefe (eds.). New evidence on unexplained early infant crying: Its origins, nature and management (pp. 273-288). Johnson & Johnson Pediatric Institute.

Fish, M. & Stifter, C. A. (1999). Parenting attitudes and behaviors in rural Appalachian mothers: A comparison study. Journal of Rural Community Psychology.

Stifter, C. A., Spinrad, T., & Braungart-Rieker, J. (1999). Toward a developmental model of child compliance: The role of emotion regulation in infancy.Child Development, 70, 21-32.

Stifter, C. A. & Spinrad, T. (1999). Colic and parents. In C. Smith (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Parenting Theory and Research (pp. 73-74). Greenwood Publishing: Westport: CT.

Spinrad, T. & Stifter, C.A. (1999). Mothering. In C. Smith (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Parenting Theory and Research(pp. 280-282). Greenwood Publishing: Westport, CT.

Porges, S., Doussard-Roosevelt, J., Stifter, C., McClenny, B., & Riniolo, T. (1999). Sleep state and the efficiency of the vagal brake in the regulation of heart rate the human newborn: An extension of the Polyvagal Theory. Psychophysiology, 36, 14-21.

Ponirakis, A., Susman, E., & Stifter, C. A. (1998). Negative emotionality and cortisol during adolescent pregnancy and its effects on infant health and autonomic nervous system reactivity. Developmental Psychobiology, 33, 163-174.

Stifter, C. A. & Bono, M. (1998). The effect of infant colic on maternal self-perceptions and mother-infant attachment. Child: Care, Health and Development, 24, 339-351.

Braungart-Rieker, J., Garwood, M., & Stifter, C. (1997). Compliance and noncompliance: The roles of maternal control and child temperament. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 18, 411-428.

Braungart, J. M., & Stifter, C. A. (1996). Infant responses to frustrating events: Continuity and change in reactivity and regulation. Child Development, 67, 1767-1779.

Stifter, C. A., & Jain, A. (1996). Psychophysiological correlates of infant temperament: Stability of behavior and autonomic patterning from 5 to 18 months. Developmental Psychobiology, 29, 379-391.

Fish, M. & Stifter, C. A. (1995). Patterns of mother-infant interaction and attachment: A cluster analytic approach. Infant Behavior and Development, 18, 435-446.

Halberstadt, A., Cassidy, J., Stifter, C., Parke, R., & Fox, N. (1995). Self-expressiveness at home: The Self-Expressiveness Questionnaire. Psychological Assessment, 7, 93-103.

Stifter, C. A., & Braungart, J. M. (1995) The regulation of negative reactivity in infancy: Function and development. Developmental Psychology, 31, 448-455.